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??????????????????????Apoptosis may be induced in experimental systems through a variety of methods. In general, methods to induce apoptosis can be divided into two categories: biological induction and chemical induction.
??Biological induction of apoptosis
???Activation of Fas or TNF receptors by their respective ligands, or by cross-linking with an agonist antibody, induces apoptosis of Fas- or TNF receptor-bearing cells. Here we describe a general protocol to induce apoptosis using an anti-Fas receptor (anti-CD95) monoclonal antibody (mAb) in Jurkat cells. The mouse monoclonal anti-Fas antibody [UT-1] (ab11881) can be used for apoptosis indication.
Apoptosis inducers act on several apoptosis-related proteins to promote apoptotic cell death. Depending on the agent selected and the concentrations used, apoptotic events can be detected between 8–72 h post-treatment. However, not all reagents will affect a particular cell line in the same way.
These are general guidelines for inducing cellular damage with chemical agents that will lead to apoptosis.
|Doxorubicin hydrochloride (ab120629)||0.2 μg/mL (25 μg/mL stock|
prepared in H2O)
|Staurosporine (ab120056)||1 μM (1 mM stock prepared in|
|Etoposide (ab120227)||1–10 μM (1 mM stock prepared|
|Camptothecin (ab120115)||2–10 μM (1 mM stock prepared|
|Paclitaxel (ab120143)||50–100 nM (stock prepared in|
|Vinblastine (ab145649)||60 nM (stock prepared in|
|Z-VAD-FMK (ab120382)||50 μM (stock prepared in DMSO)|